programme

Inclusion of Young Children with Disabilities

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Course TypeCourse CodeNo. Of Credits
Foundation CoreSES2021074

Semester and Year Offered: Semester III Year 2

Course Coordinator and Team:Monimalika Day

Email of course coordinator:monimalika@aud.ac.in

Pre-requisites: None

Aim:

Children with disabilities have been marginalized in most societies for several centuries. Traditionally, they have been segregated from the society at an early age and have been denied the educational and social opportunities granted to their peers. Current legislation, strongly promotes inclusive education for children with special needs in India. This is an important step, however, educational reform is a complex process, and the onus is now primarily on the educators to identify different ways to create inclusive learning environments. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that inclusive education in the early years benefits both children with disabilities and their peers. This course encourages students to grapple with disability as a social construction and provides various opportunities to learn about the experiences of young children who have high incidence disabilities and their parents. They will be introduced to the literature and research on existing theoretical frameworks and intervention strategies to promote inclusion of young children who have disabilities.

Objectives

  • Critically examine how disability is defined in different communities and how social, cultural, financial, and historical factors influence the process.
  • Develop an interest to know and understand the young learners who have disabilities, and their families.
  • Understand the intent of various laws written to ensure equity in access, participation and educational opportunities for children with disabilities.
  • Begin to acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to create inclusive learning environments for children with different types of abilities.
  • Begin to understand evidence based instruction and critically examine existing research on young children with disabilities.

Course Outcomes

  • Demonstrate an understanding of disability in different communities and the social, cultural, financial, and historical factors that influence the process.
  • Analyse evidence based instruction and critically examine existing research on young children with disabilities.
  • Demonstrate the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to create inclusive learning environments for children with different types of abilities.
  • Analyse the intent of various laws written to ensure equity in access, participation and educational opportunities for children with disabilities.

 

Unit 1: Understanding Children with special needs

This unit introduces different approaches to defining disability and encourages students to consider how these approaches limit or facilitate participation of young children with disabilities in education programs. It introduces students to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth developed by WHO. Students will have the opportunity to learn how some of the high incidence disabilities affect young children’s ability to learn and socialize in various settings. They will apply the concept of micro identity to examine the nature of disadvantages experienced by young children in India.

  1. Deconstructing disability: Approaches to defining disability
  2. Prejudice, discrimination and marginalization
  3. Nature of disabilities (high incidence disabilities)
  4. Early identification and early intervention

 

Unit 2: Rights of children with special needs

This unit extends the discussion and encourages students to examine the states approach to defining and responding to the needs of young children with special needs by reviewing some of the existing legislations and policies. In small groups students will review one of the legislations. Persons with disabilities, parents of children with special needs, and professionals working with children will be invited to class to discuss and critique the implementation of the laws.

  1. The Mental Health Act, 1987
  2. The Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992
  3. The Persons with Disabilities Act 1995
  4. The National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, & Multiple Disabilities Act, 1999
  5. The Right to Information Act, 2005
  6. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
  7. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014

 

Unit 3: Developing inclusive programmes

Developing inclusive programs requires individuals to be creative and scientific in their approach. This unit introduces students to the various efforts to include young children with special needs, and the research studies conducted to document the effects of these initiatives. The unit is designed to engage students in evidence based practice.

  1. Inclusion of young children: Access, participation and support
  2. Identifying goals for children with special needs
  3. Curriculum planning and modifications
  4. Supporting children in their natural environments
  5. Designing the learning environments
  6. Embedded learning opportunities
  7. Assistive technology
  8. Individualized supports

 

Assessment Details with weights:

  1. Class Participation 15%
  2. Paper on specific disability 30%
  3. Review and critique of legislation 25%
  4. Profile of a child with special needs 30%

 

Readings list:

  • Batshaw, M., Roizen, N., Lotrecchiano, G (2013).Children with disabilities.Baltimore: Paul. H Brookes Chapter 14: Patterns in development and disability by Louis Pellegrino (pg.231-243)
  • Kalyanpur, M & Harry, B. (2012).Cultural reciprocity in special education: Building family –professional relationship. Baltimore: Paul. H Brooks Chapter 2: Legal and epistemological underpinnings of the construction of disability (pg. 15-32)
  • National Council for Educational Research and Teaching (NCERT).(2006). Position Paper National Focus Group on Education of Children with Special Needs.
  • Meyer, L.H., Park, H-S, Grenot- Scheyer, M., Scwartz, I.S., Harry, B. (1998).Making friends: The influences of culture and development. Baltimore: Paul. H. Brooks Chapter 6: Promoting inclusive behaviour in inclusive classrooms (pgs 105-132)
  • Plous, S.(2002). Understanding prejudice and discrimination. McGraw Hill The Psychology of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination: An overview (p.1- 27)
  • National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center NECTAC (2011). The importance of early intervention for infants and toddlers. Retrieved from http://www.nectac.org/~pdfs/pubs/importanceofearlyintervention.pdf on 3/8/2015 (2 pages)
  • Simpson, S., Spencer, V., Warner, L. (2010).Successful inclusion strategies. Texas: Prefrock Press Inc.
  • Chapter 3: “Sam: A child with autism spectrum disorder” (p.35-60)
  • Chapter 8: “Emily: A child with visual impairment” (p.129-142)
  • Chapter 9: “Jose: A child with orthopedic impairment” (p. 113-128)
  • Stepanek, M. (2002).Heartsongs. New York: Hachette Books (A few poems from this book written by a child with special needs).
  • Stepanek, J. (2010). Messenger:The legacy of Mattie J.T Stepanek and Heartsongs. NAL Trade. (Excerpts from a book written by mother of Mattie Stepanek, a child with special needs)
  • WHO. (2007). International Classification of functioning, disability and health: Children and youth version. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43737/1/9789241547321_eng.pdf.
  • WHO.(2011).World report on disability. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf (pg.1-19)

 

Supplementary Readings:

  • Batshaw, M., Roizen, N., Lotrecchiano, G (2013).Children with disabilities.Baltimore: Paul. H Brooks Simpson,S., Spencer,V., Warner,L. (2010). Successful inclusion strategies. Texas: Prefrock Press Inc.
  • Harry, B. (2010). Melanie bird with broken wings: A mother’s story. Baltimore: Paul. H Brookes.
  • Haddon, M. (2003).Curious incident of the dog in the nighttime. Great Britain: David Fickling Books Alkazi, R. M. &Agarwal, S. (2014-2015). Fourth Annual Report: The Status of Inclusive Education of Children with Disabilities Under the Right to Education Act 2009
  • Hegarty,S., &Alur, M. (2002)Education and children with special needs. Sage: New Delhi Chapter 2:Special Needs Policy in India by M. Alur (pgs. 51-66)
  • Bhattacharya, T. (2010).Re-examining issue of inclusion in education.Economic and Political Weekly, XIV(16), 17-25.
  • Mehrotra, N. (2011).Disability Rights Movements in India : Politics and Practice, Economic and Political Weekly, XLVI No.6: 65:72, 2011.
  • Sharma, N. (2008). Research as intervention.In S. Anandalakshmy, N. Chaudhary, & N.
  • Sharma, (Eds.). (2008). Researching families and children: Culturally appropriate methods. SAGE Publications India.
  • The Mental Health Act. (1987). Retrieved from https://sadm.maharashtra.gov.in/sadm/GRs/Mental%20health%20act.pdf
  • The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act. (1995). Retrieved from http://socialjustice.nic.in/pwdact1995.php.
  • The Rehabilitation Council of India Act. (1992). Retrieved from http://www.rehabcouncil.nic.in/writereaddata/RCI_Amendments_ACT.pdf.
  • The National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, & Multiple Disabilities Act. (1999). Retrieved from http://socialjustice.nic.in/pdf/ntact1999.pdf
  • The Right to Information Act, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.righttoinformation.gov.in/
  • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009). Retrieved from http://mhrd.gov.in/rte.
  • UNESCO (1994).The Salamanca statement and framework for action on special needs education. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF on 31/7/2015

 

Supplementary Readings:

  • SarvaSikshaAbhyan (2006). Discovering New Paths in Inclusion: A documentation of home based education for CWSN in SSA .Retrieved from http://vikaspedia.in/education/policies-and-schemes/inclusion-discovering-new-paths.
  • Hegarty,S., &Alur, M. (2002)Education and children with special needs. Sage: New Delhi
  • DEC and NAEYC. (2009). A joint position statement of Division for Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/DEC_NAEYC_EC_updatedKS.pdf (5 pages)
  • Sen, R., &Goldbart, J. (2005). Partnerships in action: introducing family based intervention for children with disability in urban slums of Kolkata, India. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 52(4), 275-311.
  • Bartan, E.E., & Smith, B.J. (2014). Brief Summary: Fact Sheet on research on preschool inclusion. Retrieved from http://ectacenter.org/topics/inclusion/default.asp. (5 pages)
  • Dunst, C. J., Bruder, M. B., Trivette,C.M., Hamley, D., McLean,M. (2001). Characteristics and consequences of everyday natural learning opportunities, Topics in Early childhood special Education, 21(68), 68-92. Retrieved from http://www.uconnucedd.org/pdfs/CharacConsequen-2001.pdf.
  • National Council for Educational Research and Teaching (NCERT). (2014). Including Children with Special Needs. Retrieved from http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/upload_document/specialneeds.pdf (Excerpts from the document)
  • Strain, P. (2014).Inclusion of children with disabilities: What we know and what we should be doing. Retrieved from http://ectacenter.org/topics/inclusion/default.asp (2 pages)
  • Grisham-Brown, J., Hemmeter, M. L., Pretti-Frontczak. (2005). Blended practices for teaching young children in inclusive settings. Baltimore: Paul. H Brooks
  • Chapter 6: Curriculum planning (pp. 157-185)
  • Chapter 8: Individualizing instruction to support children’s learning (pp. 215-242)
  • Noonan, M., & McCormick, L. (2014).Teaching young children with disabilities in their natural environments. Baltimore: Paul. H Brookes
  • Chapter 13: Environmental arrangements, adaptations, assistive technologies (pp. 149-176)
  • WHO.(2011).World report on disability.Increasing the use and affordability of technology. (pg. 117-118)

 

Supplementary Readings

  • Bricker, D., Clifford, J., Yovanoff, P., Pretti-Frontczak, K., Waddell, M., Allen, D., &
  • Hoselton, R. (2008). Eligibility determination using a curriculum-based assessment: A further examination. Journal of Early Intervention, 31(1), 3-21. DOI: 10.1177/1053815108324422
  • Cook, R. E. (2011). Adapting early childhood curricula for children with special needs. NJ: Pearson
  • Noonan, M., & McCormick, L. (2014).Teaching young children with disabilities in their natural environments. Baltimore: Paul. H Brookes
  • Moore, L. O. (2009). Inclusion strategies for young children: a resource guide for teachers, childcare providers, and parents (Second Edition). CA: Corwin